Questions tagged [grandpa]

Any questions relating to the Grandpa pallet or block finality in Substrate chains.

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using ethereum accounts for BABE and Grandpa

I have applied the Moonbeam style unified account to match my substrate accounts with the evm. But I still couldn't figure it out how to use those accounts as my session keys for BABE and Grandpa. Is ...
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How to Revert a PoW Chain?

Both BABE and GRANDPA have a revert function. But PoW does not. Also here is says that any block in PoW can be reverted. To perform a revert I need to create an aux_revert and pass it into the ...
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Can I Delete AURA and GRANDPA?

In this tutorial it is explained how to create a PoW node. Neither AURA nor GRANDPA are used throughout the tutorial. Also here it's stated that such node will not finalize produced blocks. The ...
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Is it possible to have multiple GRANDPA Pause/Resume for one fork?

While reading the spec polkadot-host-spec_v0.1.1.pdf is not clear if the host should track multiple or just one GRANDPA Pause/Resume consensus message per fork until the target block is finalized/...
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Are Offences ever pruned?

In our runtime we have a custom implementation of offence reporting. I want to write an adapter for grandpa equivocation offences (implementing the ReportOffence trait), and have been using the ...
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2 votes
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Why has finalization stopped?

So I have a validator_count of 2, and 1 as minimum_validator_count. My validator is always online. I had my friend make another validator, had it enter the active validator set, and then join in as a ...
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2 answers
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Grandpa + Babe finality issues

Starting with the node-template, I switched my chains block authoring from Aura to Babe, which compiles fine but does not manage to finalize any blocks. I suspect it's a wrong genesis configuration. ...
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In substrate, does the genesis block get finalised the same way as the subsequent blocks?

In substrate, does the genesis block get finalised the same way as the subsequent blocks, or is finalisation of the genesis block a special case?
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Grandpa authorities in the context of pallet-staking

In pallet-staking's genesis config there are two items : pub validator_count: u32, pub minimum_validator_count: u32, Question : How are we to interpret them in the context of Grandpa finality? I know ...
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How would adding more weight to grandpa voting of my initial authority at genesis affect finality?

Currently I am starting my node with one authority, and the genesis config for grandpa looks like this : grandpa: GrandpaConfig { authorities: vec![] }, Would it be possible to assign some privileged ...
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4 votes
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Advantages of BABE/GRANDPA over Aura for sovereign chains when weights are equal

I've read through various documentation on consensus algorithms, along with the fellow SE post What is the difference between Babe, Aura, and Grandpa?. I'm unsure what the posited advantage of BABE/...
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Substrate chain reconcilliation with BABE/GRANDPA

With BABE, I understand validators to produce blocks and chosen randomly and multiple validators may be eligible to produce a block, already providing a large amount of forks/fork opportunities. If no ...
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How does a collator or validator choose their signing key?

If I were to insert multiple (valid) author keys over RPC, how does a collator or validator choose which key to sign with when producing a block? As far as I know this cannot be set on start-up.
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15 votes
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Equivocation crash (network with ~100 Aura Validators)

We've had a test network running for about 3.5 months with regularly-rotating sets of Aura / Grandpa Validators. Suddenly, we have run into an issue whereby the vast majority (~2/3) of the network has ...
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4 votes
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How to build a "super light" bridge based on Beefy?

Is it possible / how to build a Beefy super light client for Kusama or Polkadot? Beefy is designed to make the syncing process and finality proof very succinct to enable Ethereum on-chain light client....
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  • 464
8 votes
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GRANDPA not finalizing with 2 of 3 nodes on network

I setup a small 3 node network that is using BABE and GRANDPA. When all 3 nodes are connected, it can produce blocks and finalize them. When 2 of the 3 nodes are connected, it can produce blocks but ...
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Is there a connection between MaxAuthorities from authority_discovery, babe and grandpa?

All three pallets (babe, grandpa, and authority_discovery) have a field known as MaxAuthorities. For a chain, should these values all point to the same number or can they be different? From ...
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6 votes
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What is the internal logic of `--force-authoring` flag?

From where do I get the internal logic of --force-authoring flag? Here is my scenario: I've added a custom chain-spec that is similar to the default one where we are setting the environment for --dev ...
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4 votes
1 answer
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Backing off claiming new slot for block authorship: finality is lagging

What are the steps to take to restart a chain when finality is lagging behind and block productions is also slowing down. In the logs there are prints like this: Backing off claiming new slot for ...
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How to use noteStalled to recover from a finality lagging chain?

From the documentation: Grandpa: noteStalled (delay: u32, best_finalized_block_number: u32) interface: api.tx.grandpa.noteStalled summary: Note that the current authority set of the GRANDPA finality ...
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2 votes
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What this 'grandpa-voter' error means?

I was doing last section of substrate private network tutorial. Before i stored key set, i could started network smoothly. But after i stored key set of aura and grandpa, i got this error. yc6936@...
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4 votes
2 answers
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How to revert a bricked chain due to bad setCode

I upgraded a chain that uses Grandpa/Aura with code for instant seal by mistake. I believe it may be possible to revert some blocks: https://github.com/paritytech/substrate/pull/1479 But cannot find ...
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6 votes
1 answer
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Recovering from stalled finality (babe/grandpa)

While experimenting with a relay chain testnet, Decentration and I ran into this issue with multiple validators on the same node, stalled finality and got the chain into slow block-making mode. We ...
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8 votes
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What is the difference between Babe, Aura, and Grandpa?

Substrate supports "pluggable consensus" so a developer can choose from among several consensus algorithms. The main Substrate repository contains four algorithms: Aura Babe Proof of Work ...
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