Questions tagged [babe]

Block production protocol

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using ethereum accounts for BABE and Grandpa

I have applied the Moonbeam style unified account to match my substrate accounts with the evm. But I still couldn't figure it out how to use those accounts as my session keys for BABE and Grandpa. Is ...
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How to Revert a PoW Chain?

Both BABE and GRANDPA have a revert function. But PoW does not. Also here is says that any block in PoW can be reverted. To perform a revert I need to create an aux_revert and pass it into the ...
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Validator node dropping peers after producing a block followed by a reorg

We are seeing some strange behaviour with some (not all) of our validator nodes. We are using the standard BABE / GRANDPA pallets. When it is their turn to produce a block, they produce the block, but ...
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On using Instantseal on a public standalone network

What are the ramifications of using InstantSeal on a public standalone chain? According to the comments on How to reject empty blocks?, it's quite evident that babe/aura based chains require blocks to ...
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Is it possible to resurrect babe chains?

I've learned that babe chains, when all validators go offline, stalls and isn't recoverable. But my question is, from a database perspective we have the data in the chainstate folders right? So wouldn'...
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Grandpa + Babe finality issues

Starting with the node-template, I switched my chains block authoring from Aura to Babe, which compiles fine but does not manage to finalize any blocks. I suspect it's a wrong genesis configuration. ...
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Advantages of BABE/GRANDPA over Aura for sovereign chains when weights are equal

I've read through various documentation on consensus algorithms, along with the fellow SE post What is the difference between Babe, Aura, and Grandpa?. I'm unsure what the posited advantage of BABE/...
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Substrate chain reconcilliation with BABE/GRANDPA

With BABE, I understand validators to produce blocks and chosen randomly and multiple validators may be eligible to produce a block, already providing a large amount of forks/fork opportunities. If no ...
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How does a collator or validator choose their signing key?

If I were to insert multiple (valid) author keys over RPC, how does a collator or validator choose which key to sign with when producing a block? As far as I know this cannot be set on start-up.
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Is there a connection between MaxAuthorities from authority_discovery, babe and grandpa?

All three pallets (babe, grandpa, and authority_discovery) have a field known as MaxAuthorities. For a chain, should these values all point to the same number or can they be different? From ...
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BlockBuilderApi<Block> Trait bounds within node/src/service and rpc

I am having a problem satisfying all of the trait bounds within the node crate. I am using the polkadot-v0.9.17 branch of substrate, as was recommended on another question here. It is calling ...
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After restarting a chain I get a ClientImport("Unexpect epoch change") error. What does this mean in English?

So while testing I have about 4 nodes (local) running and if I were to stop them all, and then come back a few minutes later and restart them, with the exact same --base-path, I'd get this error : ...
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Backing off claiming new slot for block authorship: finality is lagging

What are the steps to take to restart a chain when finality is lagging behind and block productions is also slowing down. In the logs there are prints like this: Backing off claiming new slot for ...
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How to set secondary slots for Babe?

As I understand, the babe epoch config comes with the option of SecondaryPlain and SecondaryVRF slots, which is more or less like PoA in the case that no primary block producers are available. If ...
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Proof of Stake algorithms, why use Aura as block producer?

I was under the impression that in proof of stake, or as substrate uses it, nominated proof of stake, the block producers are chosen by stake, into a set known as validator set through phragmen ...
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What is the difference between Babe, Aura, and Grandpa?

Substrate supports "pluggable consensus" so a developer can choose from among several consensus algorithms. The main Substrate repository contains four algorithms: Aura Babe Proof of Work ...
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Secure random number generation?

I've been watching Substrate_ tutorials for a while now, with the goal of learning a little more about their technology. My question is: Would random number generation using Randomness be feasible in ...
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What is the KeyOwnerProofSystem in BABE config?

In the pallet_babe config one can see the type KeyOwnerProofSystem as being set to Historical which is a reference to pallet_session::historical. What functions does a KeyProofSystem serve? What is it ...
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