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12 votes
1 answer
748 views

What is the difference between Babe, Aura, and Grandpa?

Substrate supports "pluggable consensus" so a developer can choose from among several consensus algorithms. The main Substrate repository contains four algorithms: Aura Babe Proof of Work ...
JoshOrndorff's user avatar
  • 1,201
11 votes
1 answer
149 views

Understanding service.rs in substrate-node-template

Recently, I have been trying to understand the block import for Aura and Grandpa but I don't understand some parts in substrate-node-template/node/service.rs: 1- In the new_partial() method when ...
dadzerlaze's user avatar
  • 1,083
9 votes
1 answer
98 views

How does a collator or validator choose their signing key?

If I were to insert multiple (valid) author keys over RPC, how does a collator or validator choose which key to sign with when producing a block? As far as I know this cannot be set on start-up.
Gregory Hill's user avatar
8 votes
2 answers
392 views

How to revert a bricked chain due to bad setCode

I upgraded a chain that uses Grandpa/Aura with code for instant seal by mistake. I believe it may be possible to revert some blocks: https://github.com/paritytech/substrate/pull/1479 But cannot find ...
twhitehead's user avatar
8 votes
1 answer
289 views

Proof of Stake algorithms, why use Aura as block producer?

I was under the impression that in proof of stake, or as substrate uses it, nominated proof of stake, the block producers are chosen by stake, into a set known as validator set through phragmen ...
Purple_Turtle's user avatar
6 votes
2 answers
178 views

Advantages of BABE/GRANDPA over Aura for sovereign chains when weights are equal

I've read through various documentation on consensus algorithms, along with the fellow SE post What is the difference between Babe, Aura, and Grandpa?. I'm unsure what the posited advantage of BABE/...
Kayaba's user avatar
  • 125
5 votes
1 answer
48 views

Consensus algorithm selection

We are looking to build private blockchain on Substrate. It should be scalable up to 300 validators. Like start with 3 and scale it to 300 later on. Does standard AURA suitable for this? Can AURA ...
Alex 's user avatar
  • 83
5 votes
0 answers
83 views

Why are parachain candidate blocks from only one collator being backed and added on-chain at a time when there are multiple collators? [closed]

Environment: Test machine: 1x mac-m1-pro local Relay chain (rococo-local): 2x relay chain nodes Parachains: 2x collators (Alice and Bob) Parachain consensus: aura I started the network locally and ...
99kies's user avatar
  • 753
4 votes
4 answers
212 views

How could I configure that reward amount or value for my Aura validators?

Now that the PoA is running with multiple Aura validators in my substrate-node-template. How could I configure that reward amount or value for my validators?
hgminerva's user avatar
  • 467
4 votes
2 answers
58 views

Do we have any reference of solochain using DPOS consensus?

In our solochain currently our chain using POA. Now we want to update the consensus to Delegated Proof of Stake(with AURA). Do we have any reference or suggestion for that implementation?
Ajit's user avatar
  • 827
4 votes
1 answer
96 views

How many transactions with equal priority can be imported in one block?

I've been having the problem of transactions not being imported at the same block in a local network. When submitting one transaction from three nodes in a local network at the same time, those ...
Oleksandr Mykhailenko's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
169 views

Started getting: Aura pallet "Slot must increase" Error on running collator

Recently I started getting the following error thrown in the on_initialize hook of the aura pallet: 2023-12-08 14:24:54 [Parachain] panicked at 'Slot must increase', /.cargo/git/checkouts/substrate-...
Sebastian's user avatar
  • 411
4 votes
1 answer
51 views

Custom session keys in Chainspec for Mainnet config

I've seen some Substrate repo's where the SessionKeys (Aura, Babe, Grandpa, etc) are used with unchecked_into() .While the stash/controller keys are only used with into(). These are some examples: ...
Discardo's user avatar
  • 436
3 votes
1 answer
91 views

does the block gets signed by all authorities in aura?

I have read their official documentation and I'm not sure I completely understand the process of block creation or finalization. I know that after each period of time, there is a block author that ...
dadzerlaze's user avatar
  • 1,083
3 votes
1 answer
89 views

What needs to be done to change the consensus from POA to POS through a runtime upgrade?

Currently my chain(solo-chain) is on production which is working on POA. Now I have integrated the staking pallet after then when i am going to upgrade that code in the old prod chain by runtime ...
Pankaj's user avatar
  • 2,021
3 votes
3 answers
713 views

How to replace aura with babe?

Subsrate-node-template uses Aura as a default block authoring algorithem. How can one repalace aura with babe?
Syed Kamran's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
43 views

can't construct sr25519 Public key from AuthorityId in pallet but it works in outer node? Same function

I'm retrieving the list of authorities from aura in the pallet like this: let authorities = pallet_aura::Pallet::<T>::authorities(); this should return a Vec<T::AuthorityId> which is ...
dadzerlaze's user avatar
  • 1,083
3 votes
0 answers
25 views

Difficulty Storing Consensus-Derived Value in Storage: Observing Value in Pallet Log but Not in Storage

I'm trying to store a value obtained from the consensus, specifically sc_consensus_babe::fn import_block. While I can observe the value in the pallet through the log, it doesn't seem to be stored in ...
Deepak Chaudhary's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
45 views

Error in integration of pallet-session in chain-spec

I'm trying to add parachain-staking pallet in the solochain which is based on POA with Aura. For that I need to integrate pallet session but in the integrating of pallet-session in chain spec I'm ...
Deepak Chaudhary's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
281 views

how to get the current block author?

I am creating a new pallet, i have a simple task, get the current block author, i want to check whether I am the current one that is proposing the block or not by comparing the current block author ...
dadzerlaze's user avatar
  • 1,083
2 votes
1 answer
59 views

Is the Aura Slot Inherent Necessary?

Substrate's Aura implementation has an InherentDataProvider that includes the Aura slot number into the runtime. However, it seems that this code is not consistently used throughout the ecosystem. For ...
JoshOrndorff's user avatar
  • 1,201
2 votes
2 answers
94 views

No authoring in network using custom keys, a local Rococo chain specification, and a modified substrate-parachain-template

I have read through the documentation on Substrate.io and have created a network of nodes in both a relay and parachain with custom keys. The network is running in Kubernetes (I would like to have ...
Niels Vistisen's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
99 views

What is this strange balance transfer that occurs during utility.batch?

I'm putting a single transaction into a batch utility call with zero value. The batch extrinsic is shown below. Each time I submit the batch transaction, a huge value is submitted to an unknown ...
forgetso's user avatar
  • 1,514
2 votes
1 answer
47 views

Decentralize substrate template

In the substrate node template only alice and bob is validator who can auth block but i want to let any account to be able to validate and block how do i do it so any one can create block and finilaze?...
Mohamad Al Zohbie's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
115 views

How to access and sign messages with keys from SessionKeys Keystore such as Aura?

I would like to sign and gossip messages in an offchain service and leverage keys from the keystore used by the SessionKeys such as the Aura/Grandpa/etc. key. Our current strategy requires us to ...
Drew Stone's user avatar
  • 1,194
2 votes
1 answer
109 views

how to run custom block validation logic when importing a block?

I am trying to execute some logic whenever a block is received, specifically i want to create custom transactions validation of a received block. can someone provide a clear example (simple code) on ...
dadzerlaze's user avatar
  • 1,083
1 vote
1 answer
57 views

Why the block author is always `Alice`?

I implemented my own staking pallet, which implemented the SessionManager. And I pass it to pallet_session::Config. I can confirm the session keys are set correctly. If I stop the Alice node, then the ...
AurevoirXavier's user avatar
  • 10.6k
1 vote
1 answer
53 views

How are valid transactions distributed to block authoring nodes?

I am new to Substrate and currently reading through all the great documentation that is available. I understand the concept of block authoring and finalization, but the following is a bit unclear to ...
Sebastian Dine's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
37 views

How to change POA to POS with babe?

How to change the the consensus of node-template from POA to POS with babe?
Deepak Chaudhary's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
36 views

How to disable "tips" with Aura?

How can transaction tips be disabled or configured (say, limited) with Aura consensus?
vadersfather's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
46 views

On using Instantseal on a public standalone network

What are the ramifications of using InstantSeal on a public standalone chain? According to the comments on How to reject empty blocks?, it's quite evident that babe/aura based chains require blocks to ...
Purple_Turtle's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
42 views

No Block production with multiple nodes / AURA

I have a solo-chain with PoA consensus, MILLISECS_PER_BLOCK of 1000, 5MB of MAX_BLOCK_SIZE, and 400ms of MAXIMUM_BLOCK_WEIGHT. The chain produces and finalizes blocks when there's a single authoring ...
Discardo's user avatar
  • 436
1 vote
1 answer
83 views

production-like parachain setup and launch

I wanted to try out starting multple parachain node and not only one node-collator like in this documentation. How can I remove the force-authoring successfully and have multiple nodes that uses the ...
lucgerrits's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
38 views

pallet_authorship implementation doesn't work with Aura consensus

I'm trying to get the authors of the blocks using the pallet_authorship but when I inspect the authorship on the polkadot.js app I get none as result. This is my implementation of the ...
viac92's user avatar
  • 107
1 vote
1 answer
89 views

How to check what node authoring a block with Aura in the Polkadot.js App?

There is a way to see what node authoring a specific block in the Polkadot app?
viac92's user avatar
  • 107
1 vote
0 answers
50 views

Can I Delete AURA and GRANDPA?

In this tutorial it is explained how to create a PoW node. Neither AURA nor GRANDPA are used throughout the tutorial. Also here it's stated that such node will not finalize produced blocks. The ...
CREESTL's user avatar
  • 484
0 votes
2 answers
88 views

Why we add keys to the the key store?

I am following this tutorial to add trusted nodes to a network: https://docs.substrate.io/tutorials/build-a-blockchain/add-trusted-nodes/ My question is, in the tutorial, we need to add aura and ...
Syed Kamran's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
19 views

Understanding the Concept of "Best Block" in Parachains, Relay Chains, and Solo Chains

I'm currently working to gain a deeper understanding of blockchain technologies, specifically in the context of parachains and relay chains, as well as solo chains. I'm having some confusion regarding ...
the dev's user avatar
  • 477
0 votes
1 answer
31 views

How to enable warp sync with Aura consensus?

I have looked at the substrate node template and it shows how to enable Warp sync for Grandpa but I couldn't find an example with Aura. What do I need to add/modify if it's at all possible?
Robert La Ferla's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
27 views

Node template based network runs with multiple peers using the same identity

I noticed some interesting behavior while running a local test net on my machine. I booted up a network between the default Alice and Bob accounts that are used in all the tutorials, and they ...
domoarigato's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
51 views

What are the Aura committee digests in headers used for?

Aura (as well as Grandpa and Babe, but I'm currently only interested in Aura) includes the whole authority set in the header digest when it changes, as well as additional information about authorities ...
Tomasz Kisielewski's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
54 views

Error Running Substrate Node: Unsupported or invalid BabeApi version

I am trying to run a Substrate node with a custom chain specification. I used the following command to run the node: ./target/release/substrate \ --base-path /tmp/pikamo \ --chain ./...
Mr Coder's user avatar
  • 923
0 votes
1 answer
62 views

frontier template upgrade to polkadotv0.9.38 but using Babe instead of Aura

I've upgraded the frontier-node-template to substrate polkadot-v0.9.38, I've fixed all issues in runtime, migrated my code as well. But since last few days, I'm stuck in converting service.rs file in ...
Zubair Buriro's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
191 views

NPoS with Aura - no planned era

UPDATE: The election always finalizes with Election Fallback and set of validators doesnt't and neither does the Era, but sessions keep increasing. I understand that an era is just a couple of ...
Muhammad Talha Dar's user avatar