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When developing ink smart contracts, I've often seen a Storage Deposit charge. What is this, and how does it relate to contract storage?

My guess is it's a charge related to the size of the contract's storage, so the larger the data store for a contract the higher the gas fee per tx for that contract. Is that correct? If so, how is the fee decided?

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The storage deposit is the payment for the contract storage.

It is used to pay for onchain storage for a contract, reduce storage bloat, and protect against spamming or a DOS attack.

There is also a storage deposit limit which is the maximum storage deposit that can be charged from the caller for the storage consumed.

Edit by @goastler on 19/08/2023: I've gone through the code linked above trying to work out how the storage deposit is charged. Here's the struct representing the contract. Whenever a contract's storage is changed, the difference in the size from before and after is charged to the caller (I believe this can be a refund if the contract storage has shrunk in total) - see here and here. This is taken out of the gas for the transaction

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