I'm having trouble decoding a democracy.Voted event on Polkadot - for example: https://polkadot.js.org/apps/?rpc=wss%3A%2F%2Frpc.polkadot.io#/explorer/query/0x960b817cc1d137151ec6069753f7458fbdd6fb26dbff3888137ae8b09b4fc060

I'm working in Golang and I suspect that I am unpacking into a wrongly-defined data stucture.

As I understand it, democracy.Voted is comprised of:

  • AccountId32 - underlying data type is a 32 byte array
  • ReferendumIndex - underlying data type is an unsigned 32 bit integer
  • PalletDemocracyVoteAccountVote - described here

In Rust, the Vote data structure is:

pub struct Vote {
    pub aye: bool,
    pub conviction: Conviction,

I think I am having trouble with the Conviction enum.

I notice in block explorers (e.g. here) that the Vote is reported as what looks like a U8 integer - in the case of the example above, 128.

  1. What is the underlying type for Conviction?

  2. Are the variants for Conviction determined by a bitfield on a single byte?

Thanks in advance.

1 Answer 1


The aye (bool) & conviction (enum) is encoded together as a single byte. The top-most bit indicated the true/false, the remaining bits indicates the conviction.

You can look here for the specific Vote decoding code -

impl Decode for Vote {
    fn decode<I: Input>(input: &mut I) -> Result<Self, codec::Error> {
        let b = input.read_byte()?;
        Ok(Vote {
            aye: (b & 0b1000_0000) == 0b1000_0000,
            conviction: Conviction::try_from(b & 0b0111_1111)
                .map_err(|_| codec::Error::from("Invalid conviction"))?,

So in your example, 128 would be an aye with no conviction.

  • In case someone is not familiar with the binary system/bitwise operations/bit masking, maybe this hackmd Decoding vote lock up periods will be helpful. It explains in more detail the above code.
    – dominique
    Apr 14, 2023 at 12:55

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