7

Hello all developers and community members, I am very new to Substrate and Rust.

I am creating a pallet for NFT marketplace.

for storing out the NFT details I've created a struct as mentioned below.

pub struct NFTStruct<T: Config> {
        pub dna: [u8; 16],   // Using 16 bytes to represent a NFT DNA
        pub price: Option<BalanceOf<T>>,
        pub gender: Gender,
        pub owner: AccountOf<T>,
        pub creator: AccountOf<T>,
        pub royalty: Option<BalanceOf<T>>,
    }

I have two fields here 1) price 2) royalty.

I am able to set the price of nft using set_price function , and royalty using set_creator_royalty function . upto this things are working fine.

Now I have a challenge, whenever user wants to buy NFT he can buy using buy_nft function which I have defined inside my pallet.

        // buy_nft
        #[transactional]
        #[pallet::weight(100)]
        pub fn buy_nft(
            origin: OriginFor<T>,
            nft_id: T::Hash,
            bid_price: BalanceOf<T>
        ) -> DispatchResult {
            let buyer = ensure_signed(origin)?;
    
            // Check the nft exists and buyer is not the current nft owner
            let nft = Self::nfts(&nft_id).ok_or(<Error<T>>::NFTNotExist)?;
            ensure!(nft.owner != buyer, <Error<T>>::BuyerIsNFTOwner);
            
            //Check if the nft is for sale.
            // Check the nft is for sale and the nft ask price <= bid_price
            if let Some(ask_price) = nft.price {
                ensure!(ask_price <= bid_price, <Error<T>>::NFTBidPriceTooLow);
            } else {
                Err(<Error<T>>::NFTNotForSale)?;
            }
            // Check the buyer has enough free balance
            ensure!(T::Currency::free_balance(&buyer) >= bid_price, <Error<T>>::NotEnoughBalance);

            // Verify the buyer has the capacity to receive one more nft
            let to_owned = <NFTsOwned<T>>::get(&buyer);
            ensure!((to_owned.len() as u32) < T::MaxNFTsOwned::get(), <Error<T>>::ExceedMaxNFTOwned);
            let seller = nft.owner.clone();
        
            //Transfer the amount from buyer to seller
            T::Currency::transfer(&buyer, &seller, bid_price, ExistenceRequirement::KeepAlive)?;
            // Transfer the nft from seller to buyer
            Self::transfer_nft_to(&nft_id, &buyer)?;

            // Deposit relevant Event
            Self::deposit_event(Event::Bought(buyer, seller, nft_id, bid_price));
    
            Ok(())
        }

but in this function I want to make changes for royalty_split , I mean, whenever user tends to buy NFT at the price which owner has set and the royalty in percent which creator set using set_creator_royalty function should be spitted from the actual price and should be transferred to creator's address and the rest should be transferred to the owner's address.

For ex-

nft with hash 0x11c5g5 has the price of 100 and the royalty is 10%. user came to buy_nft, he made a payment of 100 Tokens, 90 Tokens should be transferred to owner's wallet and 10 Tokens should be transferred to creator's wallet.

Approaches I tried

1

Inside the buy_nft function, I tried multiplying nft.price and nft.royalty both are of same type Option<BalanceOf>. And divide it with 100 to get the percentages/share of creator


            let nft_price = nft.price;
            let creator_royalty = nft.royalty;
            let creator_share_percent = nft_price * creator_royalty /100;

I got this errror

cannot multiply `std::option::Option<<<T as pallet::Config>::Currency as frame_support::traits::Currency<<T as frame_system::Config>::AccountId>>::Balance>` by `std::option::Option<<<T as pallet::Config>::Currency as frame_support::traits::Currency<<T as frame_system::Config>::AccountId>>::Balance>`

2

I have tried to solve it with different approaches as well, I thought I should convert/typecast both of these values to U64 (Rust primitive type).

For it I used a function

        //function to  convert balance to u64
        pub fn balance_to_u64(input: BalanceOf<T>) -> Option<u64> {
            TryInto::<u64>::try_into(input).ok()
        }

But the issue is, the function balance_to_u64 only takes BalanceOf<T>> as an argument and my type is Option<BalanceOf<T>>.

If I try to pass nft.price or nft.royalty as a parameter inside balance_to_u64 function I got this error.

mismatched types

expected associated type, found enum `std::option::Option`

note: expected associated type `<<T as pallet::Config>::Currency as frame_support::traits::Currency<<T as frame_system::Config>::AccountId>>::Balance`
                    found enum `std::option::Option<<<T as pallet::Config>::Currency as frame_support::traits::Currency<<T as frame_system::Config>::AccountId>>::Balance>`
help: consider constraining the associated type `<<T as pallet::Config>::Currency as frame_support::traits::Currency<<T as frame_system::Config>::AccountId>>::Balance` to `std::option::Option<<<T as pallet::Config>::Currency as frame_support::traits::Currency<<T as frame_system::Config>::AccountId>>::Balance>`
note: for more information, visit https://doc.rust-lang.org/book/ch19-03-advanced-traits.html

I have spent around 1 week to solve this problem but unfortunately I got no solution. I am totally frustrated and looking for some help from any of the senior person.

If you have any solution or any suggestion for me, please help me out.

Thank you

2
  • 1
    Hi, could I ask why you're using an option for the royalties? Does this mean that the royalties might not be set on nfts? Wouldn't it be better to either have a fixed or default to zero? That way you can avoid the whole option situation
    – islami00
    Mar 31, 2022 at 11:07
  • Hi Yes depends on creator weather he wants to set royalty for his NFT or not, that's why I used Option here. I don't know if there is any better approach to solve this problem. As I am very new to Substrate. Thank you for your response. Mar 31, 2022 at 18:43

1 Answer 1

5
let creator_share_percent = nft.royalty.map(|creator_roality| {
    nft.price.unwrap_or_default() * creator_roality /100
});

But be aware that creator_share_percent is again an Option. So, you need to handle it as Option as well. You will then probably do something like:

if let Some(creator_share_percent) = creator_share_percent {
    // pay the creator share.
}
6
  • Thank you for your response, But I am still facing errors. Mar 31, 2022 at 13:15
  • mismatched types expected associated type, found integer note: expected associated type <<T as pallet::Config>::Currency as frame_support::traits::Currency<<T as frame_system::Config>::AccountId>>::Balance found type {integer} help: consider constraining the associated type <<T as pallet::Config>::Currency as frame_support::traits::Currency<<T as frame_system::Config>::AccountId>>::Balance to {integer} note: for more information, visit doc.rust-lang.org/book/ch19-03-advanced-traits.html Mar 31, 2022 at 13:17
  • This is the error I got as I used your code. 0 let creator_share_percent = nft.royalty.map(|creator_roality| { nft.price.unwrap_or_default() * creator_roality /100 }); Mar 31, 2022 at 13:17
  • I think it's due the the number 100 which we are dividing. Mar 31, 2022 at 13:18
  • 1
    Ahh yeah sorry, just write 100u32.into().
    – bkchr
    Mar 31, 2022 at 16:41

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